From Mageia wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Repair Grub

grub

find /boot/grub/stage1

root (hdX,Y) <== hierher kommt das Ergebnis von find, z. B.: root (hd0,2)

setup (hdX)

quit


Source : http://wiki.linux-club.de/opensuse/GRUB_wiederherstellen

Fix Asus Xonar DG - no sound output (Mageia 5 / Mageia 6)

Current bugreport 15841
Soundcard found correctly and pulse shows that it recognize the PC sound, but you cant hear something (no sound output on speaker)
Enter in console

alsamixer

Press F6 and select the Soundcard (Xonar DG)
go right to the point "Analog output" with your arrow keys
If you see that the "Analog output" is set to "Stereo Headphones (FP)" change it to : Multichannel
or : Stereo Headphones
by pressing the up or down key.

Encrypt the Hard Drive / Festplattenverschlüsselung

Encryption

Encryption allows you to secure your hard drive, that other persons, who are not allowed to use your system, cant access you drive without password. The current status is, that if another person get admin rights on system (example: boot your system with an Linux Live CD/DVD) he get access on every partition. In this case, if the partition/hard drive is encrypted, he must enter the decrypt password first, before he get access to the drive.

Please note that you have to enter the password every time you mount the drive, too. If you maybe start your system and you want to have access to your drive (or the encrypted /home like in the example below) then you have to enter the password. You don't need to enter it again while its mounted.
You cannot remove the encryption of the partition later easy just by clicking a box. If you want to remove the encryption, then you have to delete the partition and recreate it. Please don't forget to backup your files first, before you do this because the files you have on this partition will get lost.

Warning.png
Warning!
Note, that you should not forget the password, because if you do not know your password, you will not have access to the partition of course, too.


How to encrypt on Mageia installation

During the installation, when you are at the "Partitioning" point in the installer, select "Custom disk partitioning". After that you can select the drive you want to partition manually (in this example it sda - click on it) and select Create.

After that, you can select the Start sector, the size you want for your partition, the file system type and the mount point. If you want to encrypt the partition, then check the box "Encrypt partition". After that you can enter the Encryption key you want and do this again in the other line.

If your done, press the "Ok" button and DrakX begins to create the partition. After that, you can check if the partition is encrypted by clicking on it. It shows in the partition details under "Device: mapper/crypt_sda6" and "Formatted Encrypted" (in this example sda6 is the encrypted partition. It could be have an another name and/or number, depending on your drive name and partition number).

How to encrypt a drive

Start the Mageia Control Center (MCC) and select "Local disks". After that choose "Manage disk partitions". Now you see Tabs with your drivesnames which are connected to your system. Choose the drive you want to encrypt and click on "Create" if you have an empty drive or free space, or remove the current partition and create a new one after that. Please note that all data get lost on this partition if you remove it. Doublecheck before that you have selected the right drive and/or partition first, too. Now you can create the encrypted partition like in the example above described.

Usage

After configuring the encrypted drive, at reboot, you will be asked for the passkey in a window. The system doesn't start if the key is false. Then you can access your encrypted space through the mountpoint you specified.

If the graphical interface is not starting, you have to enter the keypass blindly, allthough the starting messages flow continues.

Screenshots

Verschlüsselung

Die Verschlüsselung erlaubt dir, die Festplatte abzusichern, das keine andere Person, welche nicht dazu berechtigt ist dein System zu verwenden, zugriff auf dein Laufwerk zu erlangen ohne ein Passwort. Der aktuelle Status ist, dass sobald eine andere Person Adminrechte auf deinem System erhält (z.B. durch starten deines Systems mit einer Linux Live CD/DVD), diese Zugriff auf jede Partition erhält. In diesem Fall, falls die Partition verschlüsselt ist, muss die Person erst das Entschlüsselungspasswort eingeben um Zugriff auf das Laufwerk zu erhalten

Bitte beachte das du das Passwort auch jedesmal eingeben musst, wenn das Laufwerk eingebunden wird. Wenn du dein System startest und du möchtest Zugriff auf das Laufwerk (oder die verschlüsselte Partition wie z.B. /home im unteren Beispiel) musst du das Passwort eingeben. Du musst das Kennwort nicht eingeben solange das Laufwerk eingebunden ist.
Du kannst die Verschlüsselung der Partition später nicht einfach durch einen klick auf eine Box entfernen. Wenn du die Verschlüsselung entfernen möchtest, dann musst du die Partition löschen und neu erstellen. Bitte vergiss nicht dass du deine Daten vorher sicherst, bevor du dies tust, da deine ganzen Daten auf deiner Partition verloren gehen.

Warning.png
Warning!
Beachte das du selbst das Passwort nicht vergessen darfst, denn wenn du das Passwort nicht mehr kennst, wirst auch du natürlich keinen Zugriff mehr auf die Partition haben.


Wie man eine Mageia Installation verschlüsselt

Während der Installation, wenn du am "Partitionierung" Punkt des Installers angelangt bist, wähle "Benutzerdefinierte Partitionierung". Danach kannst du das Laufwerk auswählen welches manuell partitioniert werden soll (in diesem Beispiel ist es sda - klicke darauf) und wähle "Erzeugen".

Danach kannst du den Anfangssektor festlegen, die Größe der Partition die du möchtest, den Dateisystemtyp und den Einhängepunkt. Wenn du die Partition verschlüsseln möchtest, klicke auf die Box "Partition verschlüsseln". Gebe anschließend das Verschlüsselungspasswort ein, das du möchstest und wiederhole dies in der unteren Zeile.

Wenn du fertig bist drücke auf "Ok" und DrakX beginnt die Partition einzurichten. Anschließend kannst du überprüfen ob die Partition verschlüsselt ist, indem du auf diese klickst. Es zeigt in den Partitiondetails unter "Gerät: mapper/crypt_sda6" und "Formatiert Verschlüsselt" (in diesem Beispiel ist sda6 die verschlüsselte Partition. Es kann einen anderen Namen und/oder Nummer haben, was abhängig von deinem Laufwerksnamen und Partitionsnummer ist).

Wie man ein Laufwerk verschlüsselt

Starte das Mageia Kontrollzentrum (MCC) und wähle "Lokale Festplatten". Danach wähle "Partitionen verwalten". Nun siehst du Tabs mit deinen Laufwerknamen die zur Zeit mit deinem System verbunden sind. Wähle das Laufwerk das du verschlüsseln möchtest und klicke auf "Erzeugen", falls du ein leeres Laufwerk oder freien Speicherplatz besitzt oder lösche eine bestehende Partition und erstelle eine neue danach. Bitte beachte das alle Daten auf der Partition verloren gehen, wenn du diese löscht. Überprüfe vorher dass du das richtige Laufwerk und/oder Partition ausgewählt hast. Nun kannst du die verschlüsselte Partition erstellen, wie im obrigen Beispiel beschrieben.


Screenshots

Update / Install new Grafic Driver

Warning.png
Warning!
This is Experimental, and is an uncomplete and maybe wrong description. You do this at your own risk.


Sometimes it is necrassary to have the latest driver installed for your graphic card, because you maybe bought an newer grafic card which isnt supported from the actual delivered driver from the repository or you have grafic glitches or crashes on some games. Since Steam supports officially Linux, the games who also support Linux increase more and more. Also other Projects like the Humble Bundle (also known for the Humble Indie Bundles) offers some multiplatform titles, another site where you can get games is gog.com .
If you now install one of these games and you have graphical problems, you can do the following

Check out the current driver ?

You can check if you have the proprietary installed.
For AMD graphic card it is called fglrx, for NVIDIA it is called nvidia.

You can first check if you have an proprietary driver installed and when, which version it is. You can start for this the Mageia Controll Center, go to "Install and Remove Software" and check if one of the both driversnames are checked in the list, depending on your graphic card. If not, select the right driver and install it (You maybe have to reboot the system after installing or just log out and login again). Note that the proprietary drivers are in the non-free repositorys in Mageia. You might have to activate them first if you have unselect them.

If you have them installed and you have grafic problems you have now two ways.

  • You could try the free drivers, which are included in the kernel (radeon for AMD, nouveau for NVIDIA) first and deinstall the propritary driver. Maybe you can get after that performanceproblems, but it depends on the game you play and how good the drivers are.
  • You could install the latest proprietary graphic card driver from the manufacturers Homepage.
Notepad.png
Please note!
Please note that if you have an older graphic card, check first if the new propietary driver supports your card, because for some cards the support get dropped after some years.

Using the free driver (radeon / nouveau)

???

Need Check

See

proprietary AMD driver

Screenshots


Downloadpage for AMD Grafic card driver

Select your graphic card and Operatingsystem under "Treiber manuell auswählen". On my own system its

  • Stp.1: "Desktop"
  • Stp.2: "Radeon R7" (please look on your carddescription to select the right for yours)
  • Stp.3: "Radeon R7 2xxx serie"
  • Stp.4: "Linux x86_64" (if you have installed Mageia with 32bit your have to select "Linux x86", if you have installed Mageia with 64bit then "Linux x86_64")
  • Stp.5: Start the download.

After downloading extract the downloaded .zip file. You can do this with your favoured extracting tool or you can open the console and go to the download directory and enter

unzip -x amd-catalyst-omega-14.12-linux-run-installers.zip

(You can also type "unzip -x amd-c" and then press the Tab button and it should fill in the right file if you have only one file named like this there). The 14.12 in amd-catalyst-omega-14.12-linux-run-installers is the releasedate (december 2014). It version number is 14.501.1003, the latest one in the Mageia 4 repository is 14.010.1006.

After extracting the file open a console (if you havent yet) and switch to the driver directory. If you are in the fglrx-xx.xxx.xxxx directory (where x means the version number) then you can first run

./check.sh

to see what your X Server version is and what architecture you have.
The AMD Driver 14.501.1003 needs XServer 7.4 or higher (up to 1.16). Mageia 4 comes with 1.14.5 so its ok there. Now you have to switch to Administrator with

su

and enter the root password. After that you have to run the installer with the command

./amd-driver-installer-14.501.1003-x86.x86_64.run

but you may have to replace the number 14.501.1003 with the one you have downloaded. After waiting a while you will now get an grafical installer on your screen, if you run your system without x, you get an textbased installer with similar options like described. Now you can select "Generate Distribution Specific Driver Package (Recommended)" and "Install Driver 14.501.1003 on X.Org 6.9 or later 64-bit". The first Option (Generate) didnt worked for me and aborted with an error message. Select "Install Driver" and then you can select between "Automatic" and "Custom". If you select "Automatic" it starts the install and if you select "Custom" you are able to check/uncheck the tool Catalyst Control Center, if you want to install/not install it, which is a grafical tool to setup graphic card specific setting (You will find it under Mageia Button -> Tools -> Systemtools) and is useful. The install will need some time (from some secounds till some minutes, depending on the system), but you shouldnt abort it because it can damage the driver if they are not fully installed.

If its done you have to restart your system. Start after that a game and the glitches should normaly gone.

Catalyst Control Center

The Catalyst Control Center (CCC) allows you to configure your display Hardware. You find two entrys of it under Mageia -> Tools -> Systemtools.
One entry called "AMD Catalyst Controll Center", the other one has "(Administrator)" on the end.
With the CCC you can configure 3D grafic settings like Anti-Aliasing, Samplingqualities, Anisotropic Filtering, VSync and some other things. If you start the tool as admin, then you can also set with the CCC the screenresolution or configure an Multi-Monitor setup where you can expand or duplicate your screen. Somehow it could be possible that you cant start the "AMD Catalyst Controll Center (Administrator)" over the Mageia Menu. In this case, you have to start an console and get root with the command

su

and start the CCC as admin with the command

amdcccle

proprietary NVIDIA driver

Downloadpage for NVIDIA Grafic card driver

Notepad.png
Please note!
You maybe need to install the kernel-desktop-devel package before installing the new driver

Visit the Download-Website and select you grafic card, operatingsystem (Linux 32-bit or Linux 64-bit) and the language. After that you can download an .run file, here it is NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-346.59.run.

After downloading open a console and switch to the directory, where you downloaded it. Make the .run file executable with the command

chmod +x NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-346.59.run

That you can run the installer you have to exit the x server. You can use the following command as admin (type "su" to get admin and enter the admin password)

init 3

After that, login again with your username an password, get root access with the command

su

switch to the directory where you downloaded the .run file and execute the file with

./NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-346.59.run 

Now it extract the file and runs the installer in textgrafic mode. You get asked if you want to register the kernel module source with DKMS, that it automaticly build an new module if the kernel gets updated (eg. Mageia provides sometimes kernelupdates). Accept this with "Yes" and after that the installation begins. If the installing is done type

reboot

to restart your system.

Something failed / How to remove the driver

See the Wiki Page: How to change a wrong graphic driver

Games and Gameclients for Linux

There are several ways to get games for Linux. The first and easiest one is to use the official Mageia repository, where some Open Source games are available to download. You can find a small and incomplete List here.

But if you want to buy an (current) title, than this Wikipage will shows you a small selection of available Websites/Shops where you can buy games for Linux online.

Please note that the most games are tested under Ubuntu, but they should also run with Mageia out of the box, if they dont need some special tools/APIs, for example Adobe Air, where Adobe dropped the Linux Support in the year 2011.

Desura

Offers DRM free games, DRM protected games and allows to buy Steam Keys.

Desura has its own tool, where you can manage the games bought there. They offer different Indiegames to buy. You can download the Desura Client for 64bit Linux as an .tar.gz file. To run it just extract it, and run the "desura" file.

If it doesnt work then open the console and go into the extracted desura folder /lib (e.g. /home/username/Downloads/desura/lib ) and run the following command

locate libbz

Now you see where the libbz2.so is saved. In my case it was /usr/lib64/libbz2.so.1.0.6
After that type as root (by typing "su" first and the requested admin password)

ln -s /usr/lib64/libbz2.so.1.0.6 libbz2.so.1.0

Now Desura should work.

Weblink

Desura Webpage

GOG.com

Offers DRM free games to download with an executable Downloadmanager.

Formaly known as Good old Games, because they mostly sold older game-classics, but they renamend themself after some years to GOG and now also sell some newer titles, too. They also offer some movies to watch. GOG.com is an Digital Distribution System by CD Project Red who are also known for the gameserie The Witcher.

Weblink

GOG.com Webpage

Humble Bundle

Offers DRM free and DRM Protected games to download via Homepage, Torrent or Steam (Steamkey), which are shown via Icons.

Humble Bundle is mostly known for its Humble Indie Bundles. These are packages of various Indiegames (some with Soundtracks as MP3 and/or FLAC), where you can set an own amount which you want to pay. A part of your payment will get donated to a charity project, like Free Software Foundation, Childs Play Charity or some other, which are changing from Bundle to Bundle. You can see on the page to which project they donate currently. This is also if you buy a regular title over the Humble Bundle Store. They also offer Book Bundles (eBook) and Mobile Bundles (for Smartphones).

Weblink

Humble Bundle Webpage

Steam

Offers mainly DRM Protected games, from fullprice to indiegames. Also some movies are avaiable and on some games you are able to download and play the soundtracks.
You can download Steam from the Mageia "nonfree" Repository.

Steam is a tool to manage via Steam bought games and was released by Valve in September 2003 for Windows and got ported to Linux on February 2013. Also Valve anounced its own Linux-Distribution SteamOS (based on Debian) on this time, which is still in experimental Beta. Since then, the number of Linux Titles which are avaiable under Steam are increasing. Valve is known for the Half-Life gameserie, Counter-Strike and DOTA2.

Retail Steam game

If you want to buy a retailgame with an Steam-Logo on the package and you see only Systemspecs for Windows on it, you can check the Steamwebsite first, to see if Linux is supported, too. If there is an Linux Icon for this game on the Steampage, that means, it will also run on Linux. You have then to enter the Steamkey which is inside the box, into the Steam Client and download the content. Installing the game from DVD will not work.

Weblink

Steam Webpage

Lutris

Lutris is no page where you can buy games, but its an tool written in Python, where you can manage all your games and it doesnt matter where you bought it. It currently supports managing and running your Steam and Desura games (GOG and Humble Bundle is planed for future), games installed via WINE and some more (see the about Webpage for more information). You dont need to enter your username or password from your Steam or Desura account directly in Lutris, it just adds an Shortcut to your games and start those, but you must have installed the client.

To add for example an Steam game, you just have to look what AppID the game has (you can see this if you create an Shortcut for the game to your desktop and open the shortcut with an texteditor. Now you see the AppID Number behind the line steam://rungameid/. Just add it to Lutris and select that it is an Steamgame and thats all.

To install it, download the .tar.gz package from the website and extract it. After that run

python setup.py install

If you want to run it from Mageia 4 and you get asked for PythonYAML, then just open a console as root and enter

urpmi PyYAML

After that it will download the needed package.

You can find a list of required packages for MGA 5 here.

Weblink

Lutris Webpage

Consolecommands for Linux

This page shows basic commands for the console. For information about installing and managing pakages see URPMI. For an instruction with the console and first steps see Erste_Schritte_mit_der_Konsole_und_nützliche_Beispiele

Befehl Beispiel Beschreibung
ls ls Listet die verfügbaren Dateien und Verzeichnisse auf, die sich im aktuellen Verzeichnisort befinden
Lists the files and directorys in the current directory/place
ls -al Listet auch versteckte Dateien und Verzeichnisse auf (-a) (erkennbar am . vor dem Dateinamen) und ausführliche Dateibeschreibung (-l)
Lists also hidden files (-a) (hidden files have an . in front) and detailed Fileinformation (-l)
cd cd Dokumente Wechselt in das Verzeichnis Dokumente
Changes to the Dokumente directory
cd ~/Downloads Wechselt in das Verzeichnis Downloads, welches sich in Home befindet, hierbei ist es egal in welchem Verzeichnis man sich selbst vorher befunden hat.
Changes you location to the Downloads directory which is directly in your home. It doesnt matter in which place you was before.
cd.. Geht ein Verzeichnis nach oben (z.B. von /Dokumente/2015/04/ in /Dokumente/2015/)
Go one directory up (eg. from /Dokumente/2015/04/ to /Dokumente/2015/)
mv mv Textdatei.txt Unterlagen.txt Benennt die Datei Textdatei.txt in Unterlagen.txt um
renames the File Textdatei.txt to Unterlagen.txt
mv Info.txt ~/Dokumente/ Verschiebt die Datei Info.txt in das Homeverzeichnis/Dokumente/
Moves the file Info.txt Dateiname to home/Dokumente/
cp cp Beispiel1.txt Beispiel2.txt Legt eine Kopie von Beispiel1.txt mit dem Namen Beispiel2.txt an
Creates an copy of Beispiel1.txt with the name Beispiel2.txt
cp Textdatei.txt ~/Dokumente/test.txt Legt eine Kopie der Textdatei.txt in das Verzeichnis Dokumente mit dem Namen test.txt an
Creates an copy of you file Textdatei.txt to your /home/Dokumente/ directory with the name test.txt
rm rm Textdatei.txt Löscht die Datei Textdatei.txt
Deletes the file Textdatei.txt
rm -r nicht_benoetigt Löscht das Verzeichnis nicht_benoetigt mit allen darin befindlichen Daten und Verzeichnisse (-r löscht rekursiv)
Deletes the folder nicht_benoetigt with the files and subfolders (-r deletes recursive)
su su Wechselt zum Administrator im aktuellen Verzeichnis
Gives you to admin rights
su - Wechselt zum Administrator und gleichzeitig in das Admin Verzeichnis
Gives you admin rights and you are moved directly to the admin folder
./ ./script.sh Startet die Datei script.sh, die im aktuell befindlichen Verzeichnis liegt
runs the file script.sh, who is in the current directory
<programmname> exaile Startet den Audioplayer exaile (wenn er installiert ist)
Runs the audioplayer exaile (if installed on your system)
leafpad text.txt Startet den Texteditor Leafpad und öffnet die Datei text.txt
Runs the texteditor leafpad and opens the file text.txt
chmod chmod +x script.sh Macht die Datei script.sh Ausführbar
makes the file script.sh runable
chmod -x script.sh Macht die Datei script.sh nichtmehr Ausführbar
makes the file script.sh not runable
mkdir mkdir Projekte Erstellt ein neues Verzeichnis mit dem Namen Projekte
Creates an new directory with the name Projekte
locate locate notentabelle.ods Durchsucht deine Dateidatenbank nach der Datei notentabelle.ods und zeigt wo diese gespeichert ist
Searches you Filedatabase for the file notentabelle.ods and shows where its saved
history history Zeigt die verwendeten Konsolen-Befehle an
Shows the used Consolecommands
cat /dev/null > ~/.bash_history Löscht die Liste der verwendeten Konsolen-Befehle (history). Sei vorsichtig dabei, das alles korrekt geschrieben wurde, nicht das du etwas falsches löscht !
Deletes the list of used Consolecommands (histroy). Be carefull that you write everything correct, that it doesnt delete something else !
clear clear Löscht die angezeigte Ein-/Ausgabe in der Konsole
Deletes the showed in-/output of the console
glxinfo glxinfo | grep OpenGL Zeigt die aktuell unterstützte OpenGL Version (siehe "OpenGL core profile version string")
Shows the currently supported OpenGL Version (see "OpenGL core profile version string")
uname uname -a Zeigt den aktuell verwendeten Kernel
Shows the current used Kernel


Filenames with an space between / Dateinamen mit Leerzeichen

If your Filename or Foldername has an space in the name (like "Your File") then you have to write "Your\ File", you have to add an \ before the space.
cd Your\ Foldername
leafpad Your\ Filename.txt